International Development, Community and Environment (IDCE)

Date of Award


Degree Type

Research Paper

Degree Name

Master of Arts in International Development and Social Change (IDSC)


International Development, Community and Environment

Chief Instructor

Professor Cynthia Caron

Second Reader

Professor Denise Humphreys-Bebbington


Women play a crucial role in agriculture, especially in cattle farming. However, gender inequality in livestock production remains a critical issue, as women usually have less engagement with livestock production, less control over finances, and less access to markets. The IndoBeef program in Indonesia was one of the first livestock projects to incorporate gender-specific activities in its implementation. The project used women-only focus groups, utilizing the Women’s Empowerment in Livestock Index (WELI) combined with farm production data to address women’s needs in the cattle industry. I conducted a gender analysis of one of IndoBeef’s subsidiary projects, CropCow. The project did not manage to achieve its stated goals. I conclude that this was because it failed to properly account for a patriarchal society. Better knowledge of local culture in the project area of implementation, its history, and legislation, along with the implementation of a gendered analytical framework, Feminist Participatory Action Research (FPAR), would have benefitted the project architects in accomplishing positive outcomes for women farmers. I assert that using FPAR with Gender and Development (GAD) tools can aid in creating more effective advocacy for women within the global agricultural sector, and increase their access to commons.



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