International Development, Community and Environment (IDCE)

Date of Award


Degree Type



International Development, Community and Environment

Chief Instructor

Ken MacLean

Second Reader

Kristen Williams


Democratic Republic of the Congo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, transitional justice, sexual violence, rape as a weapon of war, human security


This paper aims to outline the existing policies aimed at providing protection for sexual abuse survivors in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. In an attempt to provide justice for the survivors of sexual abuse, an analysis of the 1992-1995 Bosnia and Herzegovina post-conflict reconstruction is included. In particular, prosecution of sexual violence and rape as a weapon of war will be provided in order to weigh the benefits and weaknesses of international criminal law. The conflict in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo witnesses widespread and systematic sexual violence abuses. With over 60 armed groups at any given day, identifying the perpetrators of the crimes are challenging. Perpetrators go unpunished, which adds to the air of impunity seen throughout the country. There is an urgency to incorporate sexual violence into prosecution of all war criminals. It is imperative that the government of Democratic Republic of Congo, and the international community realize the destructive nature of disregarding the voices of the people who have suffered during the conflict. In addition to improving the prosecution of alleged war criminals, civil societies and survivors of conflict need to be incorporated into the peace talks and post-conflict reconstruction.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.