International Development, Community and Environment (IDCE)

Date of Award


Degree Type

Research Paper

Degree Name

Master of Arts in International Development and Social Change (IDSC)


International Development, Community and Environment

Chief Instructor

Denise Humphreys-Bebbington, Ph.D.

Second Reader

Anita Fabos, Ph.D


Latin America, Violence, Peace, Gender, Inclusion


This paper argues that the peace created after a conflict becomes more sustainable when peace processes are inclusive. The Salvadoran peace process shows how including certain actors reduced political violence while excluding other actors allowed for social and economic marginalization to continue. Based on secondary literature, this paper addresses who was involved in the peace process and how their involvement shaped the evolution of violence within El Salvador. While the peace process erased political violence, not including the unique needs of women and men led to continued social and economic exclusion and marginalization of vulnerable populations. The lessons from El Salvador on inclusive peacebuilding still resonate 25 years later, with exclusionary attempts at negotiating peace with maras falling apart.



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