Social dominance, sexual double standards, and violence against women in tight and loose cultures
Sexual double standards are associated with adverse consequences for women, including violence. However, little research examines sexual double standards across cultures that vary in tight or loose sexuality norms. Therefore, using social dominance theory, this study examined sexual double standards and violence against women in the United States of America (U.S., a loose culture) and Pakistan (a tight culture). We hypothesized that social dominance orientation is associated with violence against women via endorsement of sexual double standards for both the U.S. and Pakistan. We recruited 315 people in total from the U.S. (N = 169; women = 56.3%; Mage = 29 ± 5.6 years) and Pakistan (N = 138; women = 73%; Mage = 26 ± 5.3 years). After establishing measurement invariance for our measures, we used structural equation modeling to analyze our theoretical model in two cultural settings. Multigroup path models found support for social dominance theory’s proposition that people higher on social dominance orientation justify violence against women through their endorsement of sexual double standards in both countries, above and beyond more general attitudes toward women (i.e., ambivalent sexism). We also found that the processes (i.e., social dominance and sexual double standards) supporting violence against women are similar in the two countries. A sexual double standard is found to be strong predictor of justification of violence even after controlling for gender, ambivalent sexism, and cultural tightness/looseness for both countries. Discussion focusses on a sexual double standard may be a risk factor for violence against women in different parts of the world.
Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology
Jamshed, Nida; Stewart, Andrew L.; and Overstreet, Nicole M., "Social dominance, sexual double standards, and violence against women in tight and loose cultures" (2022). Psychology. 539.