International Development, Community, and Environment

Title

Temporal Variations in the Distribution of West Nile Virus Within the United States; 2000-2008

Document Type

Article

Abstract

West Nile Virus (WNV) is a serious illness that has affected thousands of people in the United States. Over 1,000 disease related deaths have occurred since its introduction to American soil in 1999. Spatial statistics are used to analyze distributional trends of human WNV cases from 2000 to 2008 through four analyses: Weighted Mean Center, Standard Deviational Ellipses, Global Moran's I, and Getis-Ord-Gi* statistic (hot spot analysis). We conclude that the directional trend in cases has been from East to West with the area affected increasing with time. Hot spot analysis reveals that recurring counties with a high number of human cases have been in the metro areas of large cities. However, normalized results indicate that the rate of humans showing symptoms of WNV is greatest in rural areas, particularly the Great Plains. These results provide a foundation for future research in analyzing the most persistent hot spots in more detail. Furthermore, these findings may aid decision makers in identifying areas to target for mitigation strategies such as spraying, larval control, and public awareness. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Publication Title

Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy

Publication Date

9-1-2012

Volume

5

Issue

3

First Page

211

Last Page

229

ISSN

1874-463X

DOI

10.1007/s12061-011-9067-7

Keywords

Health GIS, Hot spot analysis, Spatial statistics, United States, West Nile Virus

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