International Development, Community, and Environment

Title

Closing Remarks

Document Type

Article

Abstract

According to the author, it is the second wave of international feminism, that is going on. The first wave began in the 1840s, as women from France, Germany, the United States and Canada began to trade ideas and strategies in order to overcome the formidable forces opposing women's right to vote. It grew and expanded, though not without debates, misunderstandings and fractures among its activists, as its members from not only North America and Western Europe, but now too from Egypt, Vietnam, Palestine, Latin America and Korea-- sought to take on the thorny issues of women's relationships to militarism, colonialism and trafficking in women. By the 1930s, while remnants of this first wave still persisted, it was in tatters as a genuinely international coherent movement. This first wave of international feminism spoke in terms of "women," "patriarchy," "citizenship" and even "slavery." It is the second wave of international feminism that has adopted (though not always by consensus) the concept of "gender." Part of the success of the emergent second wave of international feminism has been to put women's lives and feminist questions onto the formal agendas of the foreign policy establishments of dozens of state regimes and international agencies.

Publication Title

International Journal of Phytoremediation

Publication Date

1-1-2001

Volume

8

Issue

2

First Page

111

Last Page

113

ISSN

1522-6514

DOI

10.1080/13533310108413899

Keywords

feminism, women's rights, social conditions of women, social movements, militarism, imperialism

Disciplines

Social and Behavioral Sciences | Sociology

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