There is now broad consensus that higher education must extend beyond content-based knowledge to encompass intellectual and practical skills, personal and social responsibility, and integrative learning. The college learning outcomes needed for success in 21st century life include critical thinking, a coherent sense of self, intercultural maturity, civic engagement, and the capacity for mutual relationships. Yet, research suggests that college students are struggling to achieve these outcomes in part because skills needed to succeed in college are not those needed to succeed upon graduation. One reason for this gap is that these college learning outcomes require complex developmental capacities or “self-authorship” that higher education is not currently designed to promote.
Hodge, David C.; Baxter Magolda, Marcia B.; and Haynes, Carolyn A., "Engaged Learning: Enabling Self-Authorship and Effective Practice" (2009). Mosakowski Institute for Public Enterprise. 3.