Immigrant workers and the shadow education system
The workplace is the site of English language and basic skills education for increasing numbers of U.S. workers, particularly immigrants. Most such literacy education is funded by the employer, and there can be public and/or union support. Though immigrants are not the specific targets of these literacy programs, they constitute the majority of the participants. A case study of workplace literacy programs allows consideration of the nature of this education and its consequences for various stakeholders. Employees appear to benefit from such programs, as do their organizations. Yet, there are limits to the learning that occurs: Managers may value workers' attitudinal changes more highly than skill improvements, opportunities to attend class are constrained by workplace demands, and workplace education can be used as a means to control the labor force. Employer-sponsored literacy education thus has contradictory, yet significant, consequences for immigrant workers and for immigrant education policy. © 1999 Corwin Press, Inc.
Boyle, Mary Ellen, "Immigrant workers and the shadow education system" (1999). School of Management. 148.