Emotion regulation in two-year-olds: Strategies and emotional expression in four contexts
A descriptive study of the modulation of negative emotion in the toddler period was conducted by examining expressions of negative emotion and the strategies used to reduce or change these expressions. 6 strategies were identified and evaluated in terms of their frequency of use in different situations, relations with emotional expressiveness, and cross-situational consistency. 37 2-year-olds were seen in 2 laboratory contexts (delay and separation) each with 2 variants. Emotion regulation strategies and emotional expressiveness were coded from videotapes of children's behavior in these 4 situations. Findings suggest that active engagement was most commonly used and most negatively associated with child distress. Use of strategies varied by context, and there was more cross-situational consistency in use of strategies that were more negatively or positively associated with distress within a given context than in use of particular strategies without consideration of their within-context significance.
Grolnick, Wendy S.; Bridges, Lisa J.; and Connell, James P., "Emotion regulation in two-year-olds: Strategies and emotional expression in four contexts" (1996). Psychology. 490.