Predictors of parent involvement in children's schooling
The authors combined a multilevel model of parental context with a multidimensional conceptualization of parent involvement to examine the factors influencing parents' involvement in their children's schooling. Three sets of factors were identified: parent and child characteristics, family context, and teacher behavior and attitudes. A diverse sample of 209 mothers, their 3rd-5th grade children, and 28 teachers participated. Parents, teachers, and children reported on 3 types of involvement: school, cognitive, and personal. Mothers who felt efficacious, who saw their roles as that of teacher, and who viewed their children as less difficult were more involved in cognitive activities. A difficult context, social support, and teacher attitudes and practices were associated with both school and personal involvement, though some of these relations were moderated by gender with contextual factors affecting involvement of mothers of boys and classroom factors affecting those of girls. The importance of a multilevel approach to increasing parent involvement is discussed.
Journal of Educational Psychology
Grolnick, Wendy S.; Benjet, Corina; Kurowski, Carolyn O.; and Apostoleris, Nicholas H., "Predictors of parent involvement in children's schooling" (1997). Psychology. 487.