Lesbian, gay, and heterosexual adoptive parents' socialization approaches to children's minority statuses
This study examined the narratives of 82 adoptive parents (41 couples: 15 lesbian, 15 gay male, 11 heterosexual) of young children (M age = 5.81 years) with a focus on understanding parents' socialization practices and strategies surrounding race (among parents of children of color), and family structure (among lesbian or gay [LG] parents). Most parents described an engaged approach to socialization surrounding their children's racial minority and LG-parent family statuses, employing strategies such as (a) holding parent-child conversations aimed at instilling pride, (b) seeking communities that reflect their child's identities (more often LG than heterosexual), and (c) educating about racism and heterosexism. Some parents described a cautious approach in which they acknowledged their child's racial background and LG-parent family status but were cautious about not being overly focused on their differences. A minority of parents (more often heterosexual than LG) described an avoidant approach, whereby they did not discuss their child's differences.
Goldberg, Abbie E.; Sweeney, Kristin; Black, Kaitlin; and Moyer, April, "Lesbian, gay, and heterosexual adoptive parents' socialization approaches to children's minority statuses" (2016). Psychology. 367.