Document Type



Predator–prey interactions are ubiquitous and under strong selection because of the consequences experienced by both predator and prey if they lose the interaction. Biomechanics and behavior play important roles in the outcome of these interactions, but many studies focus on the prey, restrict the range of behaviors considered, and the role of prey boldness in the outcome is not understood. We used high-speed video to test for effects of multiple measures of performance and kinematics of both the predator and prey, and boldness of prey on the outcome of interactions between Pike Cichlids (Crenicichla sp.) and Guppies (Poecilia reticulata). We found high variation in the behaviors employed during the predator–prey interactions, including in suction versus raptorial feeding, strike accuracy, and guppy responsiveness. We also found that predators moving relatively slower and prey moving relatively faster were more successful at consuming the prey and evading the predator, respectively. Prey that reacted farther from the predator was more likely to escape predation, but boldness of the prey did not affect the interaction. Our work suggests that a high level of variation in predator–prey interactions is widespread, even when strike and escape behaviors are stereotyped. We also showed that what both the predator and the prey do during an interaction are important in determining the outcome. © 2023 The Authors. Journal of Zoology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Zoological Society of London.

Publication Title

Journal of Zoology

Publication Date







biomechanics, boldness, C-start, high-speed video, kinematics, performance, predator–prey interactions, subjugation

Included in

Biology Commons



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