The problem of stability of rotating black holes is the subject of a long standing research program since the 1960s and remains an unresolved problem in general relativity. A major obstacle in the black hole stability problem is that the energy of waves propagating through rotating black holes spacetimes is not necessarily positive-definite, due to the so called ergo-region. This is a serious complication that limits the efficacy of most mathematical techniques. In this expository article, we report that, despite the ergo-region, there exists a positive-definite total energy for axisymmetric Maxwell, gravitational and electrovacuum perturbations of Kerr and Kerr–Newman black hole spacetimes. © 2023, The Author(s).
Gudapati, Nishanth, "Energy extraction, or lack thereof" (2023). Mathematics. 8.
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Must link to publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-023-37451-z