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“Compensated Compliance in Italy, 1943-1944” scrutinizes the relationship between the small Italian town of Carpi and the Fossoli camp—a deportation camp for Jews, political prisoners, and gentiles located six kilometers outside of Carpi—in order to elucidate the economic motivations for Italian gentile participation in the Holocaust. Eschewing the commonly used tri-partite classification of perpetrator, victim, and bystander, this paper will clarify how collective silence and obedience enacted genocidal practices and policies. My examination of the camp-town nexus analyzes the modes by which ordinary civilians who would not have described themselves as Fascists or antisemitic came to support genocide through a process of compensated compliance.