Bringing down the curtain
In this last chapter, all four authors independently comment on how, if at all, it might be possible to reconcile the different standpoints of stage and ecological theory. Arnett argues for "one stage, many paths." That is, emerging adulthood is experienced by most young people in industrialized countries, but the specific path they take varies widely by country, culture, social class, ethnicity, and gender. Kloep views Arnett's concept of emerging adulthood not as a theory, but merely an observation that the behavior of young people under certain circumstances has changed compared to earlier generations. However, it might be an important step towards creating a more radical change; namely, abolishing stage theories altogether! Tanner emphasized the value of integrating stage and systems perspectives in understanding development, including emerging adult development. Hendry engages in a fictitious game of tennis in order to demonstrate the weaknesses (and more positive elements) in Arnett and Tanner's arguments. The pathways to adult status, he argues, are more varied and complex than can be described by an essentially descriptive model. Only by linking with a multi-level, ecological theory could the nuances of different trajectories to adulthood be truly understood.
Debating Emerging Adulthood: Stage or Process?
Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen; Kloep, Marion; Hendry, Leo B.; and Tanner, Jennifer L., "Bringing down the curtain" (2011). Psychology. 725.