Emotions as Social Relationships
While emotions are usually treated as internal states, it is possible to view them as social relationships. From this perspective, the different emotions are not primarily understood in terms of facial expression, physiological pattern, hedonic tone, or level of arousal, but as different transformations of the relationship between person and other. To demonstrate the value of this approach, judgments of the similarity between different emotions were submitted to multidimensional scaling. It is shown that the resulting dimensions describe different aspects of the relation between self and other. These dimensions provide us with a "taxonomy" of emotions that makes some important distinctions between closely related emotions and leads to some interesting predictions about personality differences. © 1986 Plenum Publishing Corporation.
Motivation and Emotion
de Rivera, Joseph and Grinkis, Carmen, "Emotions as Social Relationships" (1986). International Development, Community, and Environment. 539.