International Development, Community, and Environment

Document Type

Article

Abstract

Note: this full-text download is the accepted and/or submitted version of this work.

Social movements have been viewed as vehicles through which the concerns of poor and marginalized groups are given greater visibility within civil society, lauded for being the means to achieve local empowerment and citizen activism, and seen as essential in holding the state to account and constituting a grassroots mechanism for promoting democracy. However, within development studies little attention has been paid to understanding how social movements can affect trajectories of development and rural livelihood in given spaces, and how these effects are related to movements' internal dynamics and their interaction with the broader environment within which they operate. This paper addresses this theme for the case of social movements protesting contemporary forms of mining investment in Latin America. On the basis of cases from Peru and Ecuador, the paper argues that the presence and nature of social movements has significant influences both on forms taken by extractive industries (in this case mining) and on the effects of this extraction on rural livelihoods. In this sense, one can usefully talk about rural development as being co-produced by movements, mining companies, and other actors, in particular the state. The terms of this co-production, however, vary greatly among different locations, reflecting the distinct geographies of social mobilization and of mineral investment, as well as the varying power relationships among the different actors involved. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Publication Title

World Development

Publication Date

12-1-2008

Volume

36

Issue

12

First Page

2888

Last Page

2905

ISSN

0305-750X

DOI

10.1016/j.worlddev.2007.11.016

Keywords

Andes, Ecuador, extractive industries, Peru, rural development, social movements

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